A friend and I have been puzzling for years about creating culture specific CRM training because different cultures have different attitudes and mores that affect interactions on the flight deck.

Americans, for example, are quite prepared and comfortable with questioning the actions of the other pilot, even if it's a much more senior captain. (sometime too much so!)

Most Asian cultures, on the other hand, have fairly clear social strata that are paternal or at least hierarchical in nature. First officers, being lower on the social food chain, are usually loath to question or even discuss actions with the captain. It's a pretty safe generalization to make that the captain supports this attitude and would be less than receptive to a junior casting doubt upon is superior position and experience. The concept of "face" is a strong influence here, the senior not wanting to give up any and the junior not wanting to risk the social and professional consequences of questioning the senior...

So the question is how to get these two talking openly on the flight deck, both comfortable discussing decisions and courses of action with the other?

Any thoughts?